Англо-русский онлайн словарь c транскрипцией. Русско-английский словарь.

Переводчик с транскрипцией.
Правила чтения в английском языке, словообразование. Перевод цифр на английский,с транскрипцией.
Составление русских и английских слов из букв онлайн.
Англо-русский словарь идиом с примерами употребления. Фразовые глаголы с примерами употребления.

Чтение текстов на английском языке со "словарём"

Чтение текстов помогает в изучении английского языка, позволяет расширить словарный запас.
При щелчке на любом слове текста будет показана соответствующая словарная статья, которая поможет в переводе слова.
Кроме этого словарь позволяет прослушать произношение слова и посмотреть его транскрипцию.
Сейчас представлены тексты на тему «Сказки»(Fairy tales), например такие известные как
Cinderilla; or, the little glass slipper, Little red riding-hood, Rapunzel и много других.
орфографический словари русского языка, большие словари синонимов и антонимов русского языка онлайн. (написание и толкование слов; подбор синонимов и антонимов), словари пословиц и поговорок , словари крылатых выражений и фразеологизмов , подбор рифм к словам русского языка

История поиска

Англо-русский и русско-английский словари онлайн с транскрипцией и произношением слов, большим количеством примеров употребления.
Онлайн словарь предоставляет широкие возможности поиска слов с применением шаблонов и знаков подстановки. Кроме основного словаря поиск слов ведется в англо-русском словаре фразеологических и идиоматических выражений, словаре фразовых глаголов. Дается толкование слова по английскому толковому словарю и синонимические ряды из ‘The Oxford Thesaurus An A-Z Dictionary of Synonyms ‘. Приводятся примеры общеупотребительных слов английского языка, полезные для пополнения словарного запаса.

В словарях представлена словарная форма слова
(Существительные представлены в единственном числе
(без артикля для английских слов). Глаголы в форме инфинитива без частицы "to")

Поиск слов,начинающихся,заканчивающихся или содержащих
заданную букву(буквы)
.Для поиска таких слов воспользуйтесь символами
*- заменяет любое количество любых символов и ! - заменяет один любой символ.
Например: x* - все слова начинающиеся на 'x';*al - слова заканчивающиеся на 'al';
x*m - слова начинающиеся на 'x' и заканчивающиеся на 'm'; !!! - все слова из трех букв;
ho*me - слова начинающиеся на 'ho' и заканчиваюшиеся на 'me';
!o!e- слова из четырех букв вторая 'o' , заканчиваются на 'e';
e*u - слова начинающиеся на 'e' и заканчивающиеся на 'u' и т.д.
При нажатии на Например:открываются примеры употребления слова

Написание прописью цифр на английском языке
(с транскрипцией и произношением)

Транскрипция текста.Английские слова русскими буквами

+Добавление (изменение, редактирование) пользовательской словарной статьи

Основной словарный запас изучающих английский язык:
Список слов, входящих в топ 1000,2000,3000, наиболее употребляемых слов,
согласно Longman Communication 3000 ?,
в разговорном английском: 1-я тыс., 2-я тыс., 3-я тыс., полный список;
в письменном английском: 1-я тыс., 2-я тыс., 3-я тыс., полный список;

Список наиболее употребляемых слов в академических текстах
на английском языке "The Academic Word List"
? (1451 слово)

Список наиболее употребляемых слов в разговорном и письменном
английском языке согласно "New General Service List"
(2818 общеупотребительных слов)

The Oxford 3000 words list.?

Англо-русский синонимический словарь     Англо-русские, русско-английские тематические словари (кулинария,авиа,футбол,экономика,общий,...)

Русские и английские пословицы и поговорки

200 Words of Intermediate TOEFL iBT Vocabulary 1500 Words of Advanced TOEFL iBT Vocabulary

Michael Buckhoff’s TOEFL iBT Exam Vocabulary List.

1500 Words of Advanced TOEFL iBT Vocabulary

Формат статьи
Word, Part of Speech (слово, часть речи)
Word Definition (определение слова)
Sample Sentence (примеры употребления)
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R [S] T U V W Y Z



a deliberate and underhanded effort to defeat or do harm to an endeavor

To sabotage his friend ‘s grades, John ‘s roommate accused him of cheating on a Philosophy exam.



a military blockade of a city or fortified place to compel it to surrender

Rebels pulled out of the city Friday after a four day siege by artillery and rockets, and after fighting that left an estimated 500 civilians dead.

Stand with


to be united with; to bring or come together into a united whole

Sitting Bull and the Sioux realized they could not defeat the army alone, and they must stand with other tribes.



to be greater or better than; to go beyond the limits of

The Grand Canyon, a long narrow gorge in Arizona, surpasses in its enormity and beauty any other geological wonder in the United States.



regarded with particular reverence or respect

In 1772, von Colloredo retained Wolfgang as concertmaster at a token salary. In this capacity Mozart composed a large number of sacred and secular works.



describing a tune, musical number, or sound effect or in television a characteristic used to identify a program, entertainer, or orchestra

The film widely regarded as Wood Allen ‘s best, with Diane Keaton ‘s signature role, "Annie Hall,"plays at 7:30 p.m. at the Academy of Motion Pictures and Sciences.



to bring into conformity with a standard

Traditionally diamonds and gemstones were weighed against these seeds until the system was standardized, and one carat was fixed at 0.2 grams.



to undergo capture, defeat, or ruin

As the battles continued, many of Sitting Bull ‘s followers surrendered.



to make safe, to protect

Putin ‘s tough stand was seen by analysts as an attempt to protect Russian interests in Iraq -- Moscow wants to safeguard its multi -billion dollar debt payments and contracts signed with Baghdad in existence before the war.



marked by much heat

In July, the Sahara Desert is characterized by sizzling days and sultry nights.



a white odorless tasteless granular or powdery complex carbohydrate that is the chief storage form of carbohydrates in plants is an important foodstuff, and is used also in adhesives and sizes, in laundering, and in pharmacy and medicine

Starch and cellulose are complex carbohydrates is an important foodstuff



close watch kept over someone or something as by a detective

The Pentagon is developing an urban surveillance system that would use computers and thousands of cameras to track record and analyze the movement of every vehicle in a foreign city.



to move swiftly through the water through the use of boat

Thorvaldsen Eriksson, son of Erik the Red, sailed from Greenland to the New World which he had been told about by his brother Leif.



a lack of conviction or certainty

His continued skepticism, however, shaped his subsequent theological studies at Crosier Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, and at Boston University, where he received a doctorate in systematic theology in 1955.



causing momentary fright, surprise, or astonishment

The aftermath of the battle, with thousands of dead soldiers spread along the landscape, reflected a startlingly realistic picture of the horrors of war.



to look over; to view broadly or from a height

Before a person reads a book, he should survey the chapter, the title, headings, and subheadings, captions under pictures, charts, graphs or maps.



to produce an abnormal flow of saliva -the result of secretion of water in the mouth

Pavlov noticed that the dogs in his laboratory salivated not only when they ate their food, but also before they had taken a bite.



to pass quickly and lightly through

Part of maintaining a pool is to skim the surface daily for leaves, drowned insects, and other forms of debris.



the act of going for an extended period of time without food

Anorexia nervosa is a pattern of self starvation and is most common among well educated girls who experience a lot of pressure to be thin.



to keep in a condition of good repair, efficiency, or use

An abundant supply of water on the Moon would make establishment of a self sustaining lunar colony much more feasible and less expensive than presently thought.

Sanctioned by


adhering to beliefs or practices approved by authority or tradition

Many same -sex couples participate in their own ceremonies, sanctioned by their friends, families and spiritual communities.



moving toward the sky; going in an upward direction

After the countdown, the space shuttle explosively launched itself skyward and ultimately reached speeds of 25,000 miles per hours while in orbit.



a person actively involved in the principles or art of government

In addition to being a great statesman, Thomas Jefferson is also known for his scientific works and inventions.



the means to support life

During the early colonial years in America, many people traveled on horseback and relied on corn for sustenance.



a sacred or holy place; the state of being protected or safeguarded, as from danger or hardship

William Faulkner ‘s written description of the gardens would later be revised for the closing of his novel Sanctuary.



a relatively long, straight, rigid piece of metal or other solid material

There are many different types of avalanches, but the one that worries us the most is the slab avalanche, in which a mass of cohesive snow releases as a unit.



showing little change

The political atmosphere of this country is far from being static.



the act of causing food to pass from the mouth into the stomach

Our larynxes are low in our throats, and our vocal tracts have a sharp right angle bend that creates two independently modifiable resonant cavities which is physiological design to making breathing, swallowing, and chewing less efficient.



the act or process of being readily kept in cleanliness

Nearly three -fifths of the 4.8 billion people in developing countries lack basic sanitation, almost a third have no access to clean water, a quarter lack adequate housing, and a fifth lack access to modern health services.



to move from true vertical or horizontal

In the Sierra Nevada mountain range, trees growing at altitudes of at least 9,000 feet slant away from the prevailing Northern winds.



of, or relating to, or employing the principles of statistics

Possible causative agents for brain cancer in firefighters include vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile and formaldehyde. Studies show an elevated (but so far not statistically significant) risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers for most firefighters.



a usually low-lying area of waterlogged ground and standing water

All lakes undergo an aging process, in which a crystal clear lake becomes a swamp full of plant growth called algae.



a work, as a novel or play, that exposes folly by the use of humor or irony

Political satire, found in newspapers across the US, aims at prominent leaders such as the president, governors, and leaders of congress.



having little flesh or fat on the body

Running five miles day helps to create a slender body.



the level of credit or respect at which a person or thing is regarded by others

Someone once remarked "a language is a dialect with an army," meaning that only the identity of a modern state can give a form of speech that status.



marked by wholesale and indiscriminate inclusion: extensive

In a victory for President Bush, both houses of Congress approved sweeping Medicare legislation early Friday to give seniors a prescription drug benefit while creating a broad new role for private insurance in the government run program.



so intense as to cause extreme suffering

During the early 1940's, Germany created many savage labor camps which were not liberated by the allies until 1945.



with little significance; moderately

Temperature variations on Mercury are the most extreme in the solar system ranging from 90 K to 700 K. The temperature on Venus is slightly hotter but very stable.



consistently reliable, especially in the face of external pressures

There has been a steadier increase in crime in the inner cities this year than that of previous years.



to make or become greater or larger

The wind generated swell one sees at a California beach, for example, spawned by a storm out in the Pacific and rhythmically rolling in, one wave after another, might have a period of about 10 seconds and a wave length of 150 m.



not enough to meet a demand or requirement

Recently, wind power has become an appealing alternative to fossil based fuels, especially in countries with scarce petroleum and ample wind.



to shift or be shifted out of place

Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, for example, denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates in a process known as seduction.



a tall structure usually having a small spire at the top and surmounting a church tower

With at least 2,500 supporters crammed into a brick lined town square, the steeple of a Unitarian church behind him, the former Vermont governor pledged to speak ‘for a new American century and a new generation of Americans.''



device for making and breaking the connection in an electrical circuit

In several famous and controversial demonstrations, chimpanzees have been taught to use some hand signs based on American Sign Language, to manipulate colored switches or tokens, and to understand some spoken commands.



an object usually suggesting a human figure that is set up to scare birds

Some farmers put up scarecrows to keep crows from invading their cornfields.



a period of poor or losing play by a team or individual

Derek Jeter and Alfonso Soriano continued their slumps at the top of the order, going a combined 0 for 8.



to control the course of

What they may not remember is that this was the war that steered the United States to center stage as a world power.



the intimate living together of two dissimilar organisms in a mutually beneficial relationship; a cooperative relationship

Giraffes have a symbiotic relationship with tickbirds. These small birds ride on the giraffe ‘s back, eating pesky insects off of its skin. In return for food, the birds serve as an early warning signal, alerting giraffes to any approaching predators with a loud chirp.



to cause to separate and go in various directions

Immigrants who have recently moved into the United States are scattered among the 50 states.



to strike so as to produce a sharp slap or blow

At some point in the geological future a large chunk of rock and ice will smack into Earth and destroy life as we know it.



the main body or stalk of a plant

Like other rodents, the gerbil lives in semiarid regions and prefers to eat the roots and stems of a variety of plants.



cognizant of and comprehending the needs, problems, and views of others

The latter, at first sympathetic to the Mozart ‘s, later became irritated by Wolfgang ‘s prolonged absences and stubborn ways.



an organism that feeds habitually on garbage or dead and putrefying flesh

New research casts T -Rex dinosaurs as little more than a scavenger, hunting out the kills of other carnivores and stealing them.



to deliver a powerful blow suddenly and sharply so as to cause something to split into fragments

Michael A’ Hearn will lead a team that ‘s planning to find out what ‘s inside comet Temple 1 by smashing into it with a 771 pound copper "hammer" the biggest they could loft into space.



a child of one's wife or husband by a former marriage

Remote sensing, a stepchild of the space age, is prying out many of Earth ‘s innermost secrets.



to combine and adapt in order to attain a particular effect

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., synthesized ideas drawn from many different cultural traditions. Born in Atlanta on January 15,1929, King ‘s roots were in the African American Baptist church.



a sequence of events especially when imagined; especially: an account or synopsis of a possible course of action or events

NASA is likely to launch its first space shuttle since the Columbia tragedy in the first three months of next year that scenario would mean a one year stand down after the Feb. 1 Columbia crash, compared to a nearly three year wait following the 1986 Challenger accident.



a small scattered number or amount

Even though only a smattering of digital programming is currently available, digital televisions will eventually become the norm, as surely as color replaced black and white.



to become greater in number, amount, or intensity

Scientists have identified a spike representing fallout from stepped-up atmospheric testing that took place just prior to the 1963 Test Ban Treaty, which allowed for underground tests only.




an arrangement of music for a specific performance medium

In 1971, she wrote the original screenplay and musical score for the film Georgia, Georgia, and was both author and executive producer of a five -part television miniseries "Three Way Choice."



marked by sedate or gravely or earnestly thoughtful character or demeanor

It is almost certain that Earth will one day be hit by an asteroid large enough to exterminate a large percentage of our planet's life.



oppressive due to a lack of fresh air

Due to noxious smog, there is a stifling heat in the Inland Empire during the summer.




a repeated scratching or clawing

Three fossil skulls recovered from the windswept scrabble of Ethiopia ‘s dry and barren Afar rift valley lend archaeological credence to the theory that modern humans evolved in Africa before spreading around the world.



relating to society

Over the past 30 years, same -sex couples have sought societal recognition of their families.



bodily marks or pains resembling the wounds of the crucified Christ and sometimes accompanying religious ecstasy

St. Francis is depicted wearing a brown habit worn by Franciscan Monks and by the stigmata over the heart.




to write hastily or carelessly without regard to legibility of thought

Check the meaning of unfamiliar words if they seem to be key words. In that case, if the author uses them more than once, scribble a brief definition at the bottom of the page or at the end of the essay.



relating to the systematic study of the development, structure, interaction, and collective behavior of organized groups of human beings

Sociological research influences the way we think about work and organizational life, and enables us to discover new knowledge.



to arouse to action; to elicit a strong emotional response from

Studies have proven that using one ‘s vocal cords stimulates natural memory.




the act of examining carefully

Despite this fact, the mission had to pass scrutiny from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for violations of the space agency ‘s "planetary protection" rules.



copulation with a member of the same sex or with an animal; non-coital and especially anal or oral copulation with a member of the opposite sex

Issues still before the court which could be decided Thursday include a Texas ban on sodomy.



to demand an express term in an agreement -- used with for

The General has stipulated that there will be no weapons after 72 hours," said the spokesman for the international force, Colonel Gerard Dubois. "Weapons that remain in Bunya will be confiscated," he told reporters in Bunya.




at a manner of having damage by or as if by fire

As a large group of Keota ‘s warriors traveling with their families passed the crater of Kilauea Volcano, there was a sudden explosive eruption of searing hot ash and gas.



the upper layer of earth that may be dug or plowed and in which plants grow

The volcanic soil in Hawaii is fertile, and the warm climate makes it possible to grow crops all year around.



the original as a person, race, language, or animal from which others derive: source

The low cost technology pioneered by Seahorse Ireland could be transferred to poorer parts of the world where seahorse stocks are fast becoming depleted.




a mass of growth of marine plants

Many types of seaweed and other plants that do not appear to be green also have chlorophyll and therefore can convert the sun ‘s energy into food.



to become united or repaired by or as if by a metal or metallic alloy used when melted to join metallic surfaces; especially: an alloy of lead and tin so used

Responsible for generating all images on your monitor, the graphics subsystem ships in PCs either as a removable expansion board or as a chip soldered permanently to the motherboard.



marked by vigorous physical exertion; requiring great effort

As an individual gets older, he starts to lose his ability to perform strenuous activities such as running or swimming.




a product of secretion, i.e. saliva, from an animal or plant

It is here that the final process of digestion and nutrient absorption takes place from the two gallons of food, liquid and digestive secretions processed each day.



an identity or coincidence of interests, purposes, or sympathies among the members of a group

This outcome is a reflection of strong sense of solidarity within the corporate peasant community, also apparent in the tendency for almost every man to remain within his village over his lifetime.



pull an object in different directions

Increasing body heat also reduces the risk of muscular damage when stretching that can happen to ‘cold’ muscles.




not religious in subject matter, form, or use

Mozart composed a large number of sacred and secular works.



to bring comfort, solace, or reassurance to

A rise in lodging and housing costs pushed underlying U.S. inflation up in May at the fastest rate in nine months, the government said on Tuesday in a report that soothed deflation fears.



to mark with a line or band of different color or texture

To the east of the Amargosa Range is the Amargosa Desert, striated by the wide washes of the Amargosa River which intermittently flows south from Beatty, Nevada, through Death Valley Junction, curving to the west and then north to enter Death Valley.




to render certain

Adams helped draft the Declaration of Independence, secured its unanimous adoption in Congress, and wrote his wife on July 3,1776, that "the most memorable Epoch in the History of America has begun."



a person who predicts the future by magical, intuitive, or more rational means

An agitated Montezuma demanded that his soothsayers explain the meaning of these dire signs and was told that they prophesied the destruction of his kingdom.



a state of disagreement and disharmony

The late 1780's were years of great strife on the Island of Hawaii. Kamehameha, who later became the first king of the Hawaiian Islands, was at war with his rival Keoua.




the matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid; material deposited by water, wind, or glaciers

The rover, Opportunity, and its sister rover, Spirit, which was launched earlier this month, will act as robotic geologists during their three months of exploration. They will send back images of sediment and mineral deposits that can help scientists determine whether there was ever enough water on Mars to sustain life.



experienced in the ways of the world; lacking natural simplicity

Even today ‘s most sophisticated forecast models cannot peg mountain convection well enough to assess how it might trigger storm complexes downstream.



to set upon with violence force

More important, the records allow researchers to predict the impact of significant events from volcanic eruptions to global warming that could strike us today.


Seek out


to strive toward a goal; to try to find

As effective as the methods I am about to outline in this lecture are, you are still advised to seek out for yourself other or even devise new methods to help your flexibility.



the condition of being free from defects or flaws

To cure means to restore to health, soundness, or normality.



to remove clothing, covering, or surface matter from; to deprive of possessions

But the Economic Policy Institute (EPI) says the new rules would strip overtime from millions of other middle -income jobholders.




the policy or practice of excluding a minority group from full freedom or participation in a society

On December 5,1955, five days after Montgomery civil rights activist Rosa Parks refused to obey the city ‘s rules mandating segregation on buses, black residents launched a bus boycott.



a specific length of time characterized by the occurrence of certain conditions or events

His career spans nearly all types of popular music from jazz to rock to dance and all genres between.



sudden diminution or loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of an artery of the brain

Insufficient angiogenesis can occur following stroke.




able to recognize small differences or draw fine distinctions

Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, was interested in the measurement of intelligence because he wanted to increase it through selective breeding.



a hot glowing particle struck from a larger mass

If fires are always suppressed, dense underbrush soon becomes so abundant that a simple spark can start a fire within minutes.



to make an error

Too many job seekers stumble through interviews as if the questions are coming out of left field.




a sense of one's own dignity or worth

Face refers to the respect that an individual has for him or herself, and maintaining "self-esteem" in public or in private situations.



to give rise to a particular development; to cause to come into existence

A growing trend toward emphasis on neural aspects of various cognitive processes has spawned what is referred to as the Cognitive Neuropsychology track, with students studying jointly in cognitive and in clinical neuropsychology.



one of the parts into which something is divided

Another way of identifying the thesis is to ask, "What is the unifying principle of this essay"? Or "What idea does everything in this essay talk about"? Or "Under what single main statement could all the subdivisions fit"?


Semi aquatic


frequently but not living completely in water

As penguins adapted to marine life, their wings changed to flippers and their feathers to a waterproof covering, hence suiting the birds to a semi aquatic existence.



short for specification

From CPUs to RAM to optical storage, we ‘ll break down the jargon--and tell you which specs are most important to your purchase.



to make or become less severe or extreme

Intent on using the land for raising cattle and growing crops, early pioneers did not subdue nature ‘s rawness.




the capacity for or an act of responding to a stimulus

Cognitive Psychology is concerned with mental processes and their effects on human behavior and focuses on phenomena such as: sensation, perception, motor control, attention, memory, learning, language, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making.



designed or fitted to one particular purpose or occupation

One should look for an entry level job, gain experience through internships, and watch for opportunities of specialized training or advanced education.



existing or functioning outside the area of conscious awareness

In 1957, a controversy developed in the United States over subliminal stimuli in which a movie theater over a period of six weeks flashed messages for 1/3,000 of a second: "Hungry? Eat popcorn!" A sixty percent increase in the sale of popcorn was reported.




something or someone that watches over

When feeding in a field, crows usually post a sentinel on a lofty perch to sound a warning if any danger should approach.



one that is representative of a group or class

The live Western Diamondback rattlesnake on display in this aquarium is a perfect specimen for us to examine in today ‘s biology class.



being beneath the surface or the bottom of a liquid

The most distinguished feature of the Atlantic is the mid -ocean ridge, a gigantic submerged mountain range larger in area than the Alps and the Himalayas combined.




characterized by the faculty of finding valuable or agreeable things not sought for

Until modern methods of oil prospecting were put into place, most oil strikes were serendipitous.



a small discoloration or spot especially from stain or decay; a very small amount

The other, a composite of four wide angle images, shows the moon as a speck just as it sets below the Martian horizon.



following something else in time

His continued skepticism, however, shaped his subsequent theological studies at Crosier Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, and at Boston University, where he received a doctorate in systematic theology in 1955.


Set apart


to make noticeable or different

But every metro area that ‘s set apart geographicallya Houston, a Denver, and a Burlington, Vermont qualifies as a city -state too.



an impressive exhibition

Their eruptions are typically characterized by the relatively quiet outflow of very fluid lava and by sometimes spectacular lava fountains.



to become less active or intense

When large areas of the sea floor elevate or subside, a tsunami can be created.




to take up permanent residence in a certain area

After this incident, the colonists decided to return to Greenland rather than settle in Vinland.



a continuous range or sequence

She continues to produce a wide spectrum of music and is truly a musical treasure.



a grant by a government to a private person or company to assist an enterprise deemed advantageous to the public

The rivalry involves two of the best -run companies in the hemisphere, yet each side protests that the other doesn ‘t play fair because it relies on taxpayer subsidies.




with a gloomy, harsh manner or appearance

The hot weather in Palm Springs had severely tired the bicyclists.



the act or process of thinking, reasoning, or theorizing

Many speculations exist about the origin and composition of dark matter.



the minimum as of food and shelter necessary to support life

Subsistent farming, in which a family is completely self -reliant, has decreased rapidly since the advent of the industrial revolution.




having prejudice or discrimination, especially against women, on the grounds of sex

On the other hand, there are those who decry marriage as a sexist and patriarchal institution that should be avoided at all costs.



at a high rate of speed

Anxious to finish since it was the last day of class; the students speedily completed the exam.

Substitute for


one that takes the place of another; to give up in return for something else

Although these maps are valuable for the general location of unstable areas, they can not be substituted for a careful on site investigation.




a room or similar enclosed structure for a particular person or use

They ‘re getting people [as contestants] who watch the show already, not someone from a shack in Kampala.



a rather short period

A spell of freezing weather before the onset of winter is usually enough to kill any remaining mosquitoes or larvae.



so slight as to be difficult to notice or appreciate

The subtle differences indicating the onset of a flu or cold may be difficult to distinguish.




to shelter, especially from light

Some scientists have speculated that the polar regions of the moon might have areas that are permanently shadowed, hence permanently cold.



an usually high and sharply defined maximum

In cores from Antarctica and Greenland, researchers have pinpointed the beginning of atomic bomb testing in the mid 1950s. They have also identified spike representing fallout from stepped up atmospheric testing that took place just prior to the 1963 Test Ban Treaty, which allowed for underground tests only.



to institute or subject to legal proceedings

Even if a murder suspect is found innocent of all charges in a criminal court, he or she may be sued in a civil court for a large sum of money.




a vertical or inclined opening of uniform and limited cross section made for finding or mining ore, raising water, or ventilating underground workings (as in a cave)

Josiah Hornblower came over with the engine to assemble and install it at the mine, where Schuyler hoped to use it to pump water from the shafts.



particularly excellent

When he returned to Salzburg he was given the position of court organist (1779) and produced a splendid series of church works, including the famous Coronation Mass.



so powerful as to stop the breathing of

In 1912, Garret Morgan invented what is now called a gas mask; the then called "Safety Hood and Smoke Protector" contained enough air to allow someone to stay in a room full of suffocating gases and smoke from fifteen to twenty minutes.




to give a sharp edge to; to improve the intellect of someone

A student who doubles his reading speed sharpens his mind, hence becoming more mentally efficient.



a blend of the word spot and blotch; a small area visibly different (as in color, finish, or material) from the surrounding area

Prior to joining the Smithsonian, Langley had spent many years documenting the cyclic appearance of dark splotches on the sun now referred to as sunspots and had traveled across the world to observe total solar eclipses.



having or suggesting the taste of sugar

The digestive system changes the large carbohydrates in mashed potatoes into sugary glucose.




Chimpanzees require massive regimented teaching sequences contrived by humans to

acquire quite rudimentary abilities. These contrasts sharply with human children, who pick up thousands of words spontaneously, combine them in structured sequences where every word has a determinate role.



on impulse without a prior plan

This contrasts sharply with human children, who pick up thousands of words spontaneously.



having the tendency to take one ‘s own life voluntarily and intentionally

People with Multiple Personality Disorder may experience any of the following: depression, mood swings, suicidal tendencies, and sleep disorders.




to cause the complete ruin or wreckage of; to split into fragments by a blow

By sailing into the New World, Christopher Columbus shattered the belief that the world was flat.



to spread or grow outward

The rising costs of housing in Los Angeles have caused a sprawling metropolis of interconnected cities in the inland areas of Southern California.

Sum up


to recapitulate the salient facts of

There are four types of politeness strategies, described by Brown and Levinson, that sum up human "politeness" behavior: Bald On Record, Negative Politeness, Positive Politeness, and Off -Record -Indirect Strategy.




referring to an area of shallow water

Consequently, as the tsunami ‘s speed diminishes as it travels into shallower water, its height grows. Because of this shoaling effect, a tsunami, imperceptible at sea, may grow to be several meters or more in height near the coast.

Spread out


to extend over a wide area

The temperature will drop in the envelope as well, as the particles become so spread out that they no longer are colliding enough to create tremendous heat.



to demand to appear, come, or assemble

Summoned by von Colloredo to Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed after a series of arguments.




to give less than the correct amount of change; to deprive of or give less than due

Emotionally and physically depleted caregivers may shortchange their own needs, risking burnout, poor health and depression.



a point of departure; a jumping-off place

A degree in psychology is an excellent springboard for entering the world of business, industry, and organizations.



to place or lay over or above something

With conventional two -dimensional X -ray pictures, things at different depths are superimposed, causing potential confusion to the viewer.




transporting or carrying someone or something over a relatively short distance

Due to the popularity of trains in European cities, airlines are halting or reducing short- haul service and focusing more on the longer runs.



to extract liquid by applying pressure

When venom is squeezed out of the gland by muscles, it enters the fang through an opening at the upper end.



of or relating to an order of existence beyond the visible observable universe; especially of or relating to God or a god, demigod, spirit, or devil

But in spite of their supernatural powers, many gods, goddesses, and heroes of mythology have human characteristics.




presenting, especially attractively, to the general attention of someone

Denver, showcasing its snowcapped Rocky Mountains and lush vegetation, is one of the most beautiful cities for this time of the year.



reliability in withstanding pressure, force, or stress

Some soil and rock types are more prone to land sliding than others, and landowners should determine the inherent geologic stability of their property before beginning construction activities.



of, being, or relating to speeds from one to five times the speed of sound in air

The idea of a supersonic passenger plane gained momentum in the 1950s, after Chuck Yeager ‘s 1947 blast through the sound barrier.




to reduce in size by or as if by drawing together

The neutron star continues to shrink until it finally becomes a black hole.

Stack up


to add up; to measure up

The trick to the principle of the three red flags is to recognize when these events are beginning to stack up and work against you.



irrational fear of the unknown

Due to events which sometimes cannot be explained, communities have developed superstitions which have been passed from one generation to the next.




to cut off from view: obscure

Fog shrouded parts of the California coast between San Francisco and Los Angeles.



at issue : in jeopardy

Primary and secondary schools have a stake because, to create diverse classrooms, some of the nation ‘s 15,000 districts use race in setting attendance policies and school boundaries.



to hold something in check

If fires are always suppressed, dense underbrush soon becomes so abundant that a simple spark can start a fire within minutes.




an incidental diversion or spectacle

As irritating as they are, the subsidies, which mostly take the form of government loans, are a sideshow to the main contest, as Bombardier and Embracer jockey for position in a market that, while stagnant today, is expected to explode with demand.



intellectual or emotional attitude

Japan has been one of the few developed countries willing to engage directly with Myanmar and the aid warning is being seen as a significant toughening of its stance.



the condition or fact of being dominant

After Admiral Nelson won a victory at Trafalgar, Spain in 1805, England established a naval supremacy that would last for 100 hundred years.