Чтение текстов помогает в изучении английского языка, позволяет расширить словарный запас.
орфографический словари русского языка, большие словари синонимов и антонимов русского языка онлайн. (написание и толкование слов; подбор синонимов и антонимов), словари пословиц и поговорок , словари крылатых выражений и фразеологизмов , подбор рифм к словам русского языка
Основной словарный запас изучающих английский язык:■ Список слов, входящих в топ 1000,2000,3000, наиболее употребляемых слов,
согласно Longman Communication 3000 ?,
в разговорном английском: 1-я тыс., 2-я тыс., 3-я тыс., полный список;
в письменном английском: 1-я тыс., 2-я тыс., 3-я тыс., полный список;
■ Список наиболее употребляемых слов в академических текстах
на английском языке "The Academic Word List" ? (1451 слово)
■ Список наиболее употребляемых слов в разговорном и письменном
английском языке согласно "New General Service List" ?
(2818 общеупотребительных слов)
■ The Oxford 3000 words list.?
■ Англо-русский синонимический словарь ■ Англо-русские, русско-английские тематические словари (кулинария,авиа,футбол,экономика,общий,...)
■ Русские и английские пословицы и поговорки
■ 200 Words of Intermediate TOEFL iBT Vocabulary ■ 1500 Words of Advanced TOEFL iBT Vocabulary
showing or marked by attentiveness to all aspects or details
Paying painstaking attention to detail, French artist Lucien Rudaux was the first to combine his artistic talents with his knowledge of astronomy.
a journey to a shrine or sacred place
Dr. Martin Luther King emphasized the goal of black voting rights when he spoke at the Lincoln Memorial during the 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom.
a group consisting of those descended directly from the same parents or ancestors
John Adams ‘s marriage of 54 years to this wise, learned, strong willed, passionate, and patriotic woman began the brilliant phase of Adams family history that produced their son John Quincy, his son Charles Francis, his sons Henry and Brooks, and numerous other distinguished progeny.
of a moderately white color; lacking color
Due to the intense ultraviolet rays of the sun, the paint on the car oxidized, causing it to change to a pale yellow.
to look for and discover; to establish the identification of
In cores from Antarctica and Greenland, researchers have pinpointed the beginning of atomic bomb testing in the mid 1950s.
a rough or tentative calculation
The costs of advances in modern medical technology and services have been projected to be between $1.5 to $2.3 trillion dollars.
one who studies in a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids-any of a family (Hominidae) of erect bipedal primate mammals comprising recent humans together with extinct ancestral and related forms
The announcement was made this week by paleoanthropologist Tim White of the University of California at Berkeley. White, who co -led the joint U.S.-Ethiopian research team that made the discovery, noted that the skulls, which are between 154,000 and 160,000 years old, are the oldest known fossils of modern humans, or Homo sapiens.
a line of pipe with pumps, valves, and control devices for conveying liquids, gases, or solids
Diamonds were formed under extreme heat and pressure at our Earth ‘s core. They traveled to the surface through volcanic pipelines known as kimberlitic during the Earth ‘s formation.
characterized by great productivity
Ebay, an Internet company allowing people to buy and sell products Online, is one of the most prolific businesses in recent history.
a small unbound booklet or leaflet
A pamphlet entitled A Dissertation on the Canon and the Feudal Law and town instructions denouncing the Stamp Act (1765) marked him as a vigorous, patriotic penman, and, holding various local offices, he soon became a leader among Massachusetts radicals.
vitally important, crucial
The difference is that these kids were already playing a pivotal role in the shaping of that culture, being the first generation to grow up with a Life on the Internet.
of long duration; extending tediously beyond a standard duration
In 1772, Archbishop von Schrattenbach died, to be succeeded by Hieronymus von Colloredo. The latter, at first sympathetic to the Mozart ‘s, later became irritated by Wolfgang ‘s prolonged absences and stubborn ways.
example of a pattern or ideas of particular theories about a given subject
Cognitive Psychology is an empirical science and depends on careful experimental procedures and paradigms to test theories about these mental processes.
an inert or harmless substance used especially in the controlled experiments testing the effectiveness of another substance
The research compared results of the crushed -body treatment with the results of immunotherapy that used insect venom and also the results of a placebo.
widely known and esteemed
Thompson and Allen are respectively touted as prominent west coast and east coast movie producers.
to render powerless or motionless by inflicting severe injury; to render helpless, as by emotion
The hiker was paralyzed with fear after seeing the mountain lion face to face.
worthy of being believed
Believing that he had a plausible alibi the day his wife was murdered, investigators let the suspect go home with no charges being filed.
of, or relating to indicative of future success
Mozart ‘s career in Vienna began promisingly, and he was soon commissioned to write The Abduction from the Seraglio (1782).
constant element or factor, especially one serving as a limit or boundary
19th century astronomers made very careful observations of Mercury ‘s orbital parameters but could not adequately explain those using Newtonian mechanics.
a person who writes plays
William Shakespeare, famous for the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet," was one of the greatest playwrights to ever exist.
to make known the positive features of a product; to provide favorable publicity for
While a psychologist openly shares psychological principles to promote treatment, psychics use psychology as a personal tool to manipulate the client, known as the sitter, presumably for the sitter ‘s own good.
an organism living in, with, or on another organism
A new theory suggests that human hairlessness evolved as a strategy to shed the ticks, lice, fleas and other parasites that nestle deep in fur.
to make unsuitable for passage or progress by obstruction
Acne starts when greasy secretions from the skin ‘s sebaceous glands plug the tiny openings for hair follicles.
having or showing a tendency or likelihood
More areas in the world were prone to drought than those in the past.
to diminish or reduce by or as if by trimming off an outside, excess, or irregular part of something
Under new CEO Paul Tellier, a proven cost cutter, Bombardier Inc., the parent company of Bombardier Aerospace, is paring down its operations to become nimbler and more focused on its core businesses, making trains and planes.
an open and mobile column of smoke, exhaust gases, or blowing snow
Great plumes of smoke were seen in the horizon.
to bring into existence and foster the development of; increase
Because the rate at which a wave loses its energy is inversely related to its wave length, tsunamis not only propagate at high speeds, they can also travel great, transoceanic distances with limited energy losses.
a false, mocking, or disrespectful imitation of something
Many writers make a distinction between poetic truth and historical truth and attempt, through the use of parody, to set their boundaries.
to take game or fish by illegal methods
Chinese folk medicines utilize almost every part of the tiger ‘s body, leading to widespread poaching of these animals.
to force to move or advance with or as if with blows or pressure
After a person chews and swallows, the food is propelled down the ten inches of esophagus and into the stomach.
a tiny amount
The introduction of more compression causes the new helium particles inside of the core to collide hard enough so that they can stick together and fuse.
financial resources: income
Our recommendations will help you build a system that fits both your needs and your pocketbook.
revolving shaft with blades, especially for propelling a ship or airplane
As the plane uses jet engines or even a propeller in some cases, to move itself forward, air rushes by the wing.
showing an inclination for or against something that inhibits impartial judgment
Divisive and partisan politics is quite common among governmental offices in many countries.
marriage in which a spouse of either sex may have more than one mate a the same time
Polygamy is allowable in Islamic tradition but is prohibited in Turkish law.
an inclination or tendency to something
Sakaltutan women show a low rate of remaining within their villages (just over 50%) and a high propensity to marry men in other locations.
a narrow passage through mountains
Sitting just west of the Nevada boundary in the basin and range district of the Mojave Desert, Death Valley is all but surrounded by mountain ranges, with a few roads connecting the valley to the outside world through narrow passes.
a projecting mass of swollen and hypertrophied or membrane; a coelenterate that
has typically a hollow cylindrical body surrounded by tentacles armed with nematocysts The ability that humans have to change the earth ‘s surface is rivaled only by colonies of tiny coral polyps, which over millions of years form massive coral reefs of limestone.
one who supports or champions an activity, institution, etc.
Morehouse College president Benjamin Mays and other proponents of Christian social activism influenced King ‘s decision after his junior year at Morehouse to become a minister and thereby serve society.
fired with intense feeling
It is mentioned in many history books that Abigail Adams was a wise, learned, strong willed, passionate, and patriotic woman.
a ceremonial or festival display as a train of followers or a pageant
The four -day visit, aimed at patching up differences between the two countries over issues such as the Iraq war, will be laden with state events and royal pomp such as Tuesday evening ‘s state banquet in Putin ‘s honor.
satisfying arrangement marked by even distribution of elements, as in a design
The cut of a diamond refers to its proportions.
office in which a priest or minister is in charge of a church or a congregation
Rejecting offers for academic positions, King decided while completing his Ph. D. requirements to return to the South and accepted the pastorate of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.
to consider carefully and at length
Program directors and staff ponder the disruptive dynamism of these new heathcare reforms. In a short time, the reforms might well be a dynamic instability in the care and networking of patients with cardiovascular diseases.
one who searches for something, especially valuable minerals: gold, silver, and diamonds.
In the mid 1870s, gold was discovered, and press reports brought a rush of prospectors to California.
grassland suitable for grazing
The settlers to the new world called the New World "Vinland," an Old Norse term for grassland or pasture.
an aggregation of the interests or property of different persons made to further a joint
undertaking by subjecting them to the same control and a common liability Over one ‘s working life, that may be true, but a bachelor ‘s degree, for example, could be a minimum prerequisite that keeps you from being screened out of the applicant pool.
steady good fortune or financial security; a state of health, happiness, and prosperity
Many gay couples are enjoying a higher level of economic prosperity than the average American and don ‘t feel constrained in any way by a lack of marriage rights.
relating to system of society or government ruled by men
Some decry marriage as a sexist and patriarchal institution that should be avoided at all costs.
the securities held by an investor: the commercial paper held by financial house like a bank
It ‘s a good bet rates will rise if the prime rate increases, since the lender ‘s cost of doing business will be higher. Or they may change if the lender sells its portfolio of customers to another bank.
the main performer in a theatrical production
Given to reading books of chivalry, the protagonist Alonso Quijano, influenced by the exploits of his heroes, loses his mind and decides to become a knight, go out in search of adventure, and impose justice according to the code of the knights errant.
a person chosen, named, or honored as a special guardian, protector, or supporter
Some authorities believe the Romans named the month for Juno, the patron goddess of marriage.
one of the parts into which something is divided
In 1848, the Virginia portion of land donated as part of the District of Columbia was returned to that state.
to curve outward past the normal or usual limit
An anorexic person has protruding ribs and resembles a skeleton, yet usually denies being thin.
the load carried by a vehicle exclusive of what is necessary for its operation; especially: the load carried by an aircraft or spacecraft consisting of things such as passengers or instruments necessary to the purpose of the flight
Scientists have worked for years to harness the power that viruses have to invade cells, replacing unwanted elements of herpes and other viruses with disease -fighting genes in hopes the new genetic payload would correct a targeted illness.
to present for attention or consideration; to put or set forth
As researchers continue to search the skies for objects that pose an impact risk, they are also beginning discussions on how to deflect an object on a collision course with Earth.
a usually familiar statement expressing an observation or principle generally accepted as wise or true
Many Biblical proverbs are used in Western culture as informative verses by which a person can effectively govern his life.
the highest point of a mountain
The western side of the valley is defined by the Panamint Range, with Telescope Peak its highest spot at an elevation of 11,049 feet.
those articles which belong to someone
Junko left most of her possessions with her parents before leaving to the United States.
to provide as of supplies; to be prepared beforehand
This species nests in the ground and provisions its nest with cicadas.
small farmer or agricultural worker
Sterling observed only a small number of cases in which a man married more than one wife in the Turkish peasant villages he studied.
an office or position to which a person is appointed
He steadily advanced at the UN, holding posts in budget, personnel, and refugee affairs.
distinguished bravery; especially : military valor and skill; extraordinary ability
It was in England, at the Crystal Palace -the popular name for the first World ‘s Fair, held in London in 1851-that America ‘s industrial and technological prowess was first widely recognized.
a small smooth stone worn by the action of water
The 3 mile wide comet will not be destroyed or knocked from its orbit. It ‘s like if you throw a pebble at a moving car. You ‘re not going to knock the car off course, unless you frighten the driver.
to put off until a later time
The exam was postponed until the next week.
to roam over in a predatory manner; to move about or wander stealthily in or as if in search of prey
At sea, large ships with heavy gear prowl in search offish.
peculiar behavior; a distinctive element
Demographic peculiarities reveal a pattern of upward marriage or hyper gamy which is quite different from endogamy and reflects an acknowledged status difference among communities.
the act of representing oneself in a given character or as other than what one is
Political posturing is quite common in presidential elections.
considered to have powers such as telepathy [paranormal communication of thoughts, especially with the deceased] or clairvoyance [being to able to tell the future beyond the normal sensory contact]
In the majority of cases, sitters go to psychics to address a personal problem, whether it ‘s travel, health, expectations, sex, career, ambitions, or money.
to establish the identification of
Today ‘s most sophisticated forecast models cannot peg mountain convection well enough to assess how it might trigger storm complexes downstream.
a building or complex in which electricity is produced
Atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides from coal and oil burning power plants, cars, and other fossil fuel burning sources have climbed along with the world population, with as yet unknown effects on the climate system.
a method of treating emotional disorders that emphasizes the importance of a patient's talking freely about himself while under the treatment and especially about childhood experiences and about his dreams
Dr. Sigmund Freud developed a new mental treatment which he named psychoanalysis.
the skin of an animal
Many hunters and fur traders sought money in beaver and otter pelts, and deer and buffalo skins.
a large area of level or rolling land in the Mississippi River valley that has deep fertile soil, a cover of tall coarse grasses, and few trees
The Midwestern part of the United States is characterized by vast prairies, rich agricultural farmland, and intense thunderstorms.
being insane or mad
Many murderers are psychotic, and they have no remorse about killing their victims.
act of self-punishment as reparation for guilt, sins, etc.
As penance for their sins, some religions require their members to engage in certain embarrassing rituals before they can receive forgiveness.
something brought about by a cause
In 1861_1862, Federal forces pushing southward from St. Louis captured Forts Henry and Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, which precipitated the Battle of Shiloh.
to make rhythmic contractions, sounds, or movements
In 1993, Angelou wrote and delivered a poem, "On the Pulse of the Morning," at the inauguration for President Bill Clinton at his request.
a piece of land jutting out into the water and connected with a larger body of land with an isthmus
Jamestown, Virginia, founded during the latter half of the seventeenth century, was built on a peninsula.
clearly, fully, and sometimes emphatically expressed
To maintain flexibility, stretching must be performed at least everyday (every 36 hours to be precise).
to strike repeatedly by heavy blows so as to cause damage
Gov. Jeb Bush on Tuesday declared a state of emergency for seven southwestern Florida counties which were pummeled by torrential rain.
to direct a concentrated outpouring, as of missiles, words, or blows
The military outpost was peppered with machine gun fire continuously for three hours.
exhibiting mature qualities at an unusually early age
A recent study in Norway suggests that wild salmon lose out to sexually precocious fish -farm invaders when breeding in rivers.
to remove a liquid by a steady, gradual process
Some cities are now pumping water which has lain in underground storage for more than 25,000 years.
rate or proportion percent
Binet discovered that the percentage of subnormal children stayed about the same if he took the ratio between the child ‘s "mental age" and "chronological age" instead of the difference between the two.
to form an opinion prior to actual knowledge or experience
The Battle of Shiloh would change all preconceived notions that the Civil War would be short lived.
affecting the organs of taste or smell with a strong and often harsh sensation; so sharp as to cause mental pain
In a pungent diary, vivid letters, learned tracts, and patriotic speeches he revealed himself as a quintessential Puritan, patriarch of an illustrious family, tough minded philosopher of the republic, sage, and sometimes a vain, stubborn, and vitriolic partisan.
the condition of being aware; that which exists in the mind as the product of careful mental activity
The cognition and perception program represents a very diverse group of faculty and students with research interests in all areas of cognitive science, including sensation, perception, motor performance, attention, memory, learning, and decision making.
a forerunner; one that proceeds and indicates the approach of another
If language evolved by gradual Darwinian natural selection, we must be able to find some precursor of it in our closest relatives, the chimpanzees.
one who is being educated, student
It is fairly certain that Cervantes was a pupil of Lopez de Hoyos in Madrid.
a resting place or vantage point; a roost for a bird
When feeding in a field, crows usually post a sentinel on a lofty perch to sound a warning if any danger should approach.
one that preys, destroys, or devours
Sea lions, seals, and sharks are natural predators of the salmon.
to follow another; to move behind another in the same direction
His attempts to measure intelligence caught on and were pursued by others.
exposure to the risk of being injured, destroyed, or lost
With the falloff in old -style agriculture, the region ‘s remarkably diverse plant community, including many rare wildflower species, is also in peril.
one that precedes; especially : a person who has previously occupied a position or office to which another has succeeded
Scientists have unearthed three 160,000 year old human skulls in Ethiopia that are the oldest known and best preserved fossils of modern humans’ immediate predecessors.
a vigorous effort to attain an end, drive
Back in the early 1960's when the fishery was really developing quite strongly, there was a push from both industry and government to make sure that things were going to be sustainable.
of minor importance; marginal
Cervantes ‘s book was read as a parody of novels of chivalry until the Romantics revealed its true importance as a novel. Part one interpolates peripheral episodes into the main plot.
a short section of preliminary remarks
Renaissance books established the convention of the preface that is found in most books of today.
to cease living
At least 80 and perhaps hundreds of people perished in the deadliest historical eruption to occur in what is now Hawaii.
Avian (bird) mortality is being studied currently to determine if industrial wind turbine farms contribute to the demise of large birds of prey such as golden and bald eagles.
Preliminary results indicate that avian mortality is specific to the site (if it ‘s on a flyway), not the turbines in general.
to diffuse through or penetrate something
Hot, humid weather permeated the East on Thursday, and many areas of the central United States received rain.
relating to setting forth expressly and authoritatively
Not only have national parks been thinking about this option, private land owners have been debating prescribed burning as well.
at right angles to the horizon or to level ground
Since lift always occurs perpendicular to the surface of the wing, the lift acts at an angle and the plane turns accordingly.
according to a tentative assumption
While a psychologist openly shares psychological principles to promote treatment, psychics use psychology as a personal tool to manipulate the client, known as the sitter, presumably for the sitter ‘s own good.
very painful punishment
Some people with mental disorders have a tendency toward self-persecution, self- sabotage, and even violence.
the quality or condition of being usual
Its prevalence rate makes autism one of the most common developmental disabilities.
insistently continuous; of long duration
After persistent rumors of a deep underground lake somewhere in a cave in East Tennessee, a large body of water now named the Lost Sea was discovered in 1905.
one that is made to suffer injury, loss, or death
Venom is then injected into the prey by an opening near the tip of the fang.
fussy about small details: fastidious
Some common complaints about usage strike me as too persnickety, but I ‘m just discussing mistakes in English that happen to bother me.
for the greater or larger part; mostly
Sulfates, which originate primarily in coal fired power plants, started rising around 1900.
to make personal, which is characterized by a close and thorough acquaintance
To personalize a business relationship can be effective in many cultures.
any of an order of mammals comprising man together with the apes, monkeys or related
Allelomimetic behavior is highly developed among primates, where it has the principal function of providing warning against predators.
that which is or can be seen; mental view of the relative importance of things
Although few occupations include "sociologist" in their title at the bachelor ‘s level, the sociological perspective is excellent preparation for a wide variety of occupations.
of or pertaining to early stages in the evolution of human culture
In primitive times, there were no televisions, radios, or microwaves.
widespread; occurring quite often
Over one half million people in the U.S. today have autism or some form of pervasive developmental disorder.
most important, influential, or significant
William Faulkner ‘s principal residence during the next several months was near Paris, France, just around the corner from the Luxembourg Gardens, where he spent much of his time; his written description of the gardens would later be revised for the closing of his novel Sanctuary.
something resembling a pest in destructiveness; especially: a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns (as agriculture or livestock production)
"Disgusting," "dirty," and "pest" are just some of the words we associate with the very unpopular insect, the cockroach.
a broad and basic rule or truth
The best philosophy I can convey about how to avoid problems is the principle of the three red flags, which states that most accidents are not the result of an unavoidable "karmic -cannonball," but rather are the predictable outcome of a series of related events.
so remarkable as to elicit disbelief
Few in the music world were prepared for the phenomenal success in 1983 of Michael Jackson ‘s Thriller produced by Quincy Jones.
going before; just gone by or elapsed
No one else had gone to college prior to his entering Harvard.
having a fear of something
People who have a lot of phobias will also be characterized as having unusually high stress levels.
likely to happen or to be true; based on probability or presumption
The Ontario report found a probable link between firefighting and cancer even though the evidence was inconsistent.
unreal, fake, pretend
Multiple Personality Disorder was being thrown into disrepute by many people giving phony demonstrations of alter switching during television talk shows.
to study in order to acquire information
The committee probed more into the allegations of whether or not he had engaged in insider trading.
to convey in language or words of a particular form
It would seem socially unacceptable utter the following phrase to a co -worker: "You are ugly?"
an official or prescribed course of action; a method used in dealing with something
For those unfamiliar with the term, cold reading is the description of the personality, characteristics, and features, past experiences and sometimes the future of a person without the use of standard psychological or other formal diagnostic procedures.
one who studies the functions of the living organisms and their living parts
The first studies done with classical conditioning were performed by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist.
a public statement; the act of announcing
Dubbed the Emancipation Proclamation, the law decreed that all slaves were free men.
a structure extending into navigable water for use as a landing place or promenade or to protect or form a harbor
Seaweeds, or algae, some of which attach themselves to stationary objects such as rocks or piers by the suction of organs called holdfasts, do not have roots like higher land plants.
the act of getting possession of: obtaining by particular care and effort
Most organ procurement organizations offer programs that forward letters from organ recipients to the families of organ donors.
something that imparts color
Many types of seaweed and other plants that do not appear to be green also have chlorophyll and therefore can convert the sun ‘s energy into food. In these plants, the greenness is hidden by other pigments.
beyond the understanding of the average mind
It is a complex story within the healthcare scheme of technological modernization that has one profound and simple reality: there will not be enough money to pay for the healthcare costs of this country.